Robotics and its Applications
Table of Contents
Introduction to Robotics
Robots are machines capable of carrying out tasks with minimal human intervention or even autonomously.
Robotics (references 1, 2, 3, 4) is a multidisciplinary field that
involves the study, design, and construction of robots and draws on knowledge and skills from mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, and mathematics.
Robots can take different forms and may be used in manufacturing , healthcare in general
and surgical operations in particular, agriculture, space exploration ,
entertainment and many other applications . Some robots are
designed to perform specific tasks, such as assembling parts in a factory, while others are more general-purpose and can adapt to different situations.
Robotics also involves the development of the algorithms and the software that control the robots. This includes programming the
robots to perform tasks, sensing and processing information about the environment, and making decisions based on that information. Robotics also includes the study of the
interaction between robots and humans, and the development of user interfaces that allow people to control and interact with robots.
Applications and Use of Robots
- Manufacturing: Robots are widely used in manufacturing industries for tasks such as assembly, welding, and painting. Robotic automation in manufacturing has become
increasingly important for increasing productivity, reducing costs, and improving product quality.
- Healthcare: Robots are increasingly being used in healthcare for tasks such as surgery, rehabilitation, and patient care. Medical robots can provide precise, consistent, and safe care,
and can also help to reduce healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes.
- Agriculture: Robots are being developed and used in agriculture for tasks such as planting, harvesting, and crop monitoring. Agricultural robots can help to increase efficiency,
reduce labor costs, and improve crop yields.
- Space exploration: Robots are also highly important in space exploration for tasks such as planetary exploration, sample collection, and maintenance of space infrastructure.
- Transportation: Robots are increasingly being used in transportation for tasks such as automated vehicles and drones. Robotic transportation systems can help to improve safety,
reduce traffic congestion, and increase efficiency.
- Education: Robots are also being used in education, particularly in STEM fields, for tasks such as teaching programming and robotics. Educational robots can help to make learning
more engaging and interactive, and can also help to prepare
students for careers in robotics and related fields.
Robots Performing Surgical Operations
Robots are increasingly being used in surgical operations. Robotic-assisted surgery, also known as robotically-assisted surgery,
is a type of minimally invasive surgery that is performed using robotic systems.
In robot-assisted surgery, the surgeon uses a computer console to control the robotic system, which is equipped with surgical instruments
and a high-definition camera. The surgeon operates the instruments through small incisions in the patient's body, and the camera provides a 3D view of the surgical site.
The robotic system enhances the surgeon's ability to use the fingers, hands and arms to perform the task with precision and control. It also helps in performing a more accurate
and less invasive surgery.
Robot-assisted surgery is used in a wide range of surgical procedures, including:
There are several benefits to robot-assisted surgery, including:
- Prostate surgery
- Gynecologic surgery
- Colorectal surgery
- Cardiac surgery
- Orthopedic surgery
- Head and neck surgery
- Less blood loss
- Less pain
- Faster recovery times
- Smaller scars
- Reduced risk of infection
Robots in Manufacturing Industries
Robots are widely used in manufacturing industries for various purposes, such as assembling, welding,
material handling, and quality control . Here are some examples of how robots are used in manufacturing industries:
- Assembly: Robots are often used for assembly tasks that require high precision, speed, and repeatability. They can be programmed to perform repetitive tasks such as inserting screws,
placing parts, and applying adhesives. They can also be used for complex assembly tasks that require multiple steps and coordinated movements.
- Welding: Robots are commonly used for welding tasks in manufacturing industries, such as welding of automotive parts, pipes, and metal structures. They can be programmed
to perform various types of welding, such as arc welding, spot welding, and laser welding. Robotic welding can provide higher accuracy, speed, and efficiency compared to manual welding.
- Material handling: Robots are used for material handling tasks such as picking and placing parts, loading and unloading materials, and transporting materials within a production line.
They can be programmed to handle different types of materials, such as metals, plastics, and composites.
- Quality control: Robots are used for quality control tasks such as inspection and testing of products. They can be equipped with sensors and cameras to detect defects, measure dimensions,
and perform other quality checks. Robotic inspection can provide higher accuracy, speed, and consistency compared to manual inspection.
Robots and Space Exploration
Robots have been used extensively in space exploration for a variety of tasks, such as planetary exploration, sample collection, and maintenance of space infrastructure.
Here are some projects of robots used in space exploration:
- Mars rovers: NASA's Mars rovers, such as the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers, are robotic vehicles designed to explore the surface of Mars.
They are equipped with cameras, sensors, and instruments for analyzing the Martian environment and collecting samples 
- Lunar rovers: NASA's Apollo missions in the 1960s and 1970s used lunar rovers, which were robotic vehicles designed to explore the surface of the moon.
The lunar rovers were equipped with cameras, instruments, and a retractable antenna for communicating with Earth.
- Space station robots: The International Space Station (ISS) has a number of robotic systems for maintenance and servicing tasks.
These robots are remotely operated by astronauts on the ISS or by ground-based operators.
- Planetary landers: Robotic landers have been used for planetary exploration, such as NASA's InSight lander, which landed on Mars in 2018.
The InSight lander is equipped with instruments for studying the interior structure and seismic activities of Mars.
More References and Links
- Robotics: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) 1st Edition - Alan Winfield - November 2012.
- Robotics: Everything You Need to Know About Robotics from Beginner to Expert – By Peter Mckinnon - Jan. 28 2016
- Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision, and Intelligence – by by K. S. Fu, R.C. Gonzalez , C.S.G. Lee - January 1, 1987
- Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control" by John J. Craig
- Industrial Robotics: Technology, Programming, and Applications - by Mikell P. Groover, Mitchell Weiss, Roger N. Nagel. - 1986
- Medical Robotics: Minimally Invasive Surgery" by Stefan Weberm, Danail Stoyanov, Tamas Haidegger and chard M. Satava
- Agricultural Robots: Fundamentals and Applications - by Jun Zhou and Baohua Zhang – January 2019
- Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution, and Interplanetary Travel" by Roger D. Launius, Howard E. McCurdy - September 2012
- Autonomous Vehicles: Opportunities, Strategies and Disruptions: Updated and Expanded Second Edition Paperback – by Michael E. McGrath - December 2019
- Robots in Education: An Introduction to High-Tech Social Agents, Intelligent Tutors, and Curricular Tools Paperback – by by Fady Alnajjar, Christoph Bartneck, Paul Baxter - July 2021
- Robotics in General Surgery Hardcover – Keith Chae Kim - November 2013
- Implementation of Robot Systems: An introduction to robotics, automation, and successful systems integration in manufacturing - by Mike Wilson - December 2014
- Curiosity: An Inside Look at the Mars Rover Mission and the People Who Made It Happen - by Rod Pyle - July 15 2014
- Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution, and Interplanetary Travel Paperback – by Roger D. Launius, Howard E. McCurdy - September 2012