Programming Languages



Description of the most important properties and use of some of the most popular programming languages are listed below.

JavaScript
JavaScript is a scripting language that can be used to add interactivity to Web pages. It is supported by most of the browsers including Chrome, Firefox Internet Explorer and Safari. Visitors to websites that support JavaScript have the possibility to interact with web pages and obtain a response within the webpage.
You can use JavaScript to add animation to web pages in order to improve users' experience in going from static to dynamic pages. You can also use the JavaScript programming language to draw shapes and graphs in an HTML 5 canvas. for web pages.
In order to browse dynamic web pages including JavaScript, the browser used must be enabled.
It is a relatively easy language to learn, but there is a large number of JavaScript programs that were developed and are available to be used for free . There are also plenty of JavaScript editors and free software to develop and test JavaScript programs.

Java
Java language is one of the most powerful and popular programming languages that can be used to solve a vast range of enterprise problems. It is used to build web apps for various users. It is a programming language used to develop Android applications and native apps for android OS smartphones and tablets devices such as Samsung, HTC and Motorola.
Some of the main features of java language are

  • Itís easy to learn and understand
  • Itís designed to be platform-independent and secure, using virtual machines. The Java compilers convert your code from human readable Java source files (the program written by developers) to something called ďbytecodeĒ. Then the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in desktops, laptops, mobile phones and tablets interprets these bytecodes.
  • It is an object-oriented programming language where the properties of an object are defined by its class.

Example of a java program

public class myFirst{
     /* This is my first java program.
      * This will print 'Hello World' as the output
     */
public static void main(String[]args){
     System.out.println("Hello World");// prints Hello World
}
}

C language
The C language is one the most powerful and widely used programming languages. In fact many other languages such as Java, C#, Objective-C, PHP have borrowed from C language. It is a compiled language.
The C language is used in operating systems, text editors, network drivers and data bases and many other modern programs.

Example of a C language program

#include < stdio.h >
int main()
{
     int a, b, c;
     printf("Enter two numbers to add\n");
     scanf("%d%d",&a,&b);
     c = a + b;
     printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",c);
     return 0;
}



C++ language
C++ is a a very powerful used to write small, medium or large software application as well games. It is a good choice for speed or low-level programming. C++ may be used in extensive number calculations, graphing, writing other programming languages, operating systems,...
C++ is an object oriented programming language which makes easy to maintain, has low development cost. It is a compiled language.
Example of a C++ language program

#include < iostream.h >
void main()
{
     int L,W,per;
     cout << "Length = ";
     cin >> L;
     cout << "Width = ";
     cin >> W;
     per = 2*L + 2*W;
     cout << endl
     << "Perimeter is " << per;
     << endl;
} // end of main program

Visual Basic
Visual basic programs are developed using an integrated development environment (IDE) where tools and functions are visually selected (drag and drop design) which makes it an easy to design and develop computer programs in visual basic.
Although visual basic is not supported anymore, a large number of developers still use it to develop and maintain the large number of applications built in the last few years.

Perl
Perl is an interpreted language. It is used as a CGI ( interface between the Web server and browsers) language but also used for graphics programming, computer network programming, finance and has many other applications.

Objective-C
Objective-C is a programming language used to write software programs and applications for OS X (the operating system for the Mac) and iOS (the operating system for other Apple's devices such iPhones, iPads and iPods). Objective-C inherits many characteristics of of C language and adds definitions of classes and methods which makes Objective-C an object oriented programming language.
An powerful integrated development environment (IDE) called Xcode is used to write the code, design, compile, debug and run apps for the operating systems iOS and OS X.

PHP
PHP is a widely used scripting language for web development. PHP can also be embedded into html to perform specific functions. It is used in wordPress (blogging system) and Facebook.
Interpretation and execution of PHP code is done on the server, and the result is returned to the browser as HTML.
With PHP you can generate dynamic webpages. You can create, open, read, write, delete, and close files on the server; add, delete, modify data in your database. PHP is free and can be downloaded from www.php.net.

Swift
Swift is a new programming language to write code, design, debug and run apps for iOS and OS X. It is designed to work with Cocoa and Cocoa touch which are APIís for OS X and iOS operating systems. It is a compiled, Object-oriented language.

References and Books
1 - Programming for the Absolute Beginner 1st Edition - Jerry Lee Ford Jr. - ISBN-13: 978-1598633740
2 - Programming: Computer Programming for Beginners: Learn the Basics of Java, SQL & C++ - 2. Edition (Coding, C Programming, Java Programming, SQL Programming, JavaScript, Python, PHP) - Joseph Connor
3 - C Programming Absolute Beginner's Guide (3rd Edition) 3rd Edition - Greg Perry and Dean Miller - ISBN-13: 978-0789751980
4 - Java: A Beginner's Guide, Sixth Edition 6th Edition - Herbert Schildt - ISBN-13: 978-0071809252
5 - JavaScript and JQuery: Interactive Front-End Web Development 1st Edition - Jon Duckett - ISBN-13: 978-1118531648